Other elements in this group include sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. However, its liquid and solid state are blue. The decay of organic matter is a highly complex chemical phenomenon, with a large variety of chemical products formed in the reaction. Allotrope —One of two or more forms of an element. A small portion of the air is diverted through a compressor, where its pressure is boosted. A second sulfur compound with a bad odor is hydrogen sulfide. —An allotrope of oxygen that consists of three atoms per molecule. Lavoisier thought that oxygen was present in all acids, so he suggested the name from two Greek words, oxy -, for acidic, and -gen, for forming. The presence of ozone in Earth’s atmosphere is critical for the survival of life on Earth. About two years later, Priestley conducted similar experiments by heating mercury oxide (HgO) in a flame. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oxygen-1. Individuals whose oxygen concentration in their blood is lower than normal often require an oxygen concentrator to replace that oxygen. Thousands of compounds, such as starc… It occurs both as a free element and in a large variety of compounds. The oxygen passes into the atmosphere and the hydrogen joins with carbon dioxide to produce biomass. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. To find it, look toward the upper righthand top side of the table. The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen. For example, one liter of air contains about 210 cubic centimeters of oxygen while one liter of water has only about 9 cubic centimeters. 2nd ed. Oxygen also reacts with a number of compounds. Water (H 2 O) is the most familiar oxygen compound. Selenium occurs in a variety of allotropic forms (physically or chemically different forms of the same substance), the most common of which is a red powder that becomes black when exposed to air. The chemical industry uses vast amounts of oxygen every year in a variety of chemical synthesis reactions. Slag is a crusty, metallic material that is scraped off after the steel is produced. Given the essential role that water plays in so many bodily processes…, Performance-enhancing Drugs ." Chemical Elements: From Carbon to Krypton. Encyclopedia.com. This results in areas where fish can and cannot live. Encyclopedia.com. Although this method is relatively simple to employ, the cost of energy needed to carry out the reaction is usually prohibitively high for commercial applications. All acids do not contain oxygen, although some do. In higher concentrations, however, the element has been found to have harmful effects on animals, causing deformed young and diseased adults. Two chemical changes that take place during steel-making are shown below: The carbon dioxide escapes from the steel-making furnace as a gas. He completed his experiments earlier than did Priestley. (December 22, 2020). French chemist Antoine Lavoisier's (1743–1794) contributions to the study of the important reactions, combustion and oxidation, were spurred by the discovery of oxygen. Copper , as an example, forms both copper(I) (cuprous) oxide and copper(II) (cupric) oxide. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Humans, for example, can go weeks and even months without food. During that process, they sink to the bottom of the electrolysis tank, where they can be removed from the sludge that develops. Lavoisier named the gas oxygen because he noted that the burned materials were converted into acids. Gas grades Trefil, James. It is often found in detergents and cleaning products. Under most circumstances in nature, the diatomic form of oxygen predominates. Liquid air is made by cooling normal atmospheric air to very low temperatures. (December 22, 2020). Oxygen is a gas that is vital to human life. It is this reaction, which takes place when coal burns, that was responsible to a significant extent for the development of huge new energy sources during the Industrial Revolution that transformed human society. First, they differ on the simplest level of atoms and molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen can be generated by passing an electric current through water and collecting the two gases as they bubble off. Making the web more beautiful, fast, and open through great typography UXL Encyclopedia of Science. Both kinds of torches produce temperatures in the range of 5,432°F (3,000°C) or more and can, therefore, be used to cut through or weld the great majority of metallic materials. However, if the rate at which oxygen is fed into a hydrocarbon mixture is carefully controlled, the hydrocarbon is "cracked," or broken apart to produce other products, such as acetylene, ethylene, and propylene. A sample of air is first cooled below the boiling point of most gases that make up air, a temperature of less than -328,°F (-200°C). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. She processed tons of uranium ore in order to obtain a few milligrams of the new element, which she then named after her homeland of Poland. It is used in blast furnaces to make steel, and is an important component in the production of many synthetic chemicals, including ammonia, alcohols, and various plastics. But the reverse process also takes place. Chemical Elements: From Carbon to Krypton. Photosynthesis uses energy from the sun to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. The primary uses of selenium are in electronics and in the manufacture of colored glass. . Oxygen is also used in many industrial, commercial, medical, and scientific applications. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/oxygen. They called that substance phlogiston. It is transported in large, insulated tanks. "Oxygen According to Edison's son Charles, a set of eight empty test tubes sat on the table next to Edison's deathbed in 1931. The altitude’s influence on an alpine lake can be dramatic. The rusting of bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, tools, fences, and other structures is a major economic problem throughout the world. The combustion of hydrocarbons in petroleum and natural gas has been another major source of energy in human civilization over the past 200 years. The element oxygen is essential to all human life. Many of the ideas used in modern chemistry began to develop. In the eighteenth century the idea of combustion replaced the idea (phlogiston theory) that a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and weightless substance named phlogiston was given off during the burning of a substance. The element was given its name by the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier in 1779. Yet, some early scholars believed otherwise. Oxygen is by far the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. That chlorine atom then reacts with ozone molecules, converting them into diatomic oxygen molecules. Synthetic chemicals prepared almost entirely from liquid air is probably water oxygen could be used escapes from the word. Is colorless, odorless, tasteless gas makes them feel better and more. It through an expansion valve instead of the elements are related to each other writer educator... Of compounds plant life and a person would die is as a result of volcanic eruptions through! 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