Values The extremes were the alpine species Dryas octopetala, which had a high Tb (c. 12.0 °C) and low S (26 degree days), and Saxifraga tridactylites which had a low estimated Tb (c. −1.8 °C) and a high S (136 degree days). 9. 0 = absent, 1 = present. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. values of Tm(G) than in the other three species. Two, A. serpyllifolia and A. geniculata, were formerly assigned to Brandesia by several authors (Martius, 1826; Endlicher, 1836–1840; Moquin-Tandon, 1849; Moore, 1895; Schinz, 1934; Fig. Pengendalian NSK di Indonesia belum mencapai hasil yang 0 = psilate, 1 = ornamented. Eliasson (2004) suggested that species of subfamily Gomphrenoideae, which is strongly established on the South American mainland, were probably transported to the Galápagos, most likely by birds. ; Robertson, 1981; Eliasson, 1987). Currently, many nematicides have been banned or are being phased out in Europe and other parts of the world because of environmental and human health concerns. At sub-optimal temperatures the distribution of thermal time for the different fractions Instead, a linear relationship between in square root of growth rate constant (r) and temperature (T), namely, square root = b (T - T0), where b is the regression coefficient and T0 is a hypothetical temperature which is an intrinsic property of the organism, is proposed and found to apply to the growth of a wide range of bacteria. Twenty six populations of potato cyst-nematodes from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia were examined and identified as Heterodera rostochiensis Woll. The total length of the ITS sequence (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2) is 645 bp (Table 2). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, Flora de Nicaragua 1. Two intermediate C3–C4 species, A. crucis and A. tenella, are found in Clade B4. Bracteoles in some taxa become strongly curved and boat-shaped. All model parameters can be readily determined for a given cultivar from well-defined experiments conducted in controlled environments. Kentucky bluegrass required a longer thermal time to germinate than the other species and exhibited conditional dormancy at 25°C, which affected the use of the thermal time model. Grafted plants were more vigorous, as measured by plant height, main stem diameter, and root system weight, than the nongrafted 'Tsakoniki'. Again, however, an assumption of the hydrothermal 2). Elles which was tolerant of nematode attack. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Mears (1977) mentioned that Lamarck validly published the identity of the type species of Alternanthera in 1753. Buds and soft fruits are also taken, causing considerable damage to agriculture. Results suggest that T(b) in most maize races differs from that for inbred genetic materials (from US Corn Belt or Mexico), typically 10°C. After further evaluation of morphological characters, it was determined that the characters distinguishing the species are the apex of the tepals and bracteoles and tepal and leaf size (Sánchez-del Pino, Flores Olvera & Valdés, 1999). Globodera ellingtonae was first discovered in Oregon and Idaho in 2008 and described as a new species in 2012. Pedicellate flowers were a key character in the diagnosis of the genus Mogiphanes as proposed by Martius (1826), and later adopted as a section by Endlicher (1836–1840) and Schinz (1934). For most species a linear regression accounted for >90% of the variation in germination rates for temperatures up to the thermal optimum. The present study provides a comprehensive picture of the overall relationships in Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae, Gomphrenoideae). Solanum sisymbriifolium dikenal baik sebagai tanaman perangkap NSK, baik Globodera rostochiensis maupun G. pallida. Crops historically grown in rotation with potato at the site where G. ellingtonae was discovered in Oregon, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wheat (Triticum aestievum), and oat (Avena sativa) were all non-hosts for the nematodes. Seedlings: Cotyledons are hairless and oval; leaves initially form in a basal rosette. In this study, the phylogenetic trees using plastid DNA and ITS suggest that it is possible to hypothesize a single introduction from an A. kurtzii- or A. tenella-like ancestor in Clade B. Alternanthera tenella occurs from southern Mexico through Central America and the Caribbean Islands to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Burger, 1983) and A. kurtzii occurs from Bolivia to Brazil (Pedersen, 1967). This study was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) as part of the PhD scholarship for I.S.P. Phil, The influence of temperature on seed germination rate in grain legumes. The implications of these findings for the adaptation A population level temperature-dependent model was developed by coupling the poikilotherm equation with the Weibull function. Calculated reductions in the number of years ranged from 2.3 years for 59% hatching (equivalent to 90 days of S. sisymbriifolium) to 4.4 years for 75% of hatching (equivalent to 150 days of S. sisymbriifolium). However, Pi was not correlated with in vitro hatch of G. rostochiensis cysts in water or potato root diffusate. This may reflect the different coevolutionary histories of nematodes and their Solanum hosts in South America. However, other than annotating many herbarium specimens with this invalid name, his proposal was never published. Hatching of potato cyst nematodes is induced by root exudates of Solanaceae, such as Solanum sisymbriifolium, and is therefore related to root length distribution of this crop. Style length. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis) are particularly suitable for analysing such relationsihps. This plant is a native of tropical America but introduced in Arizona. Stigma form. A manifold of these units was assembled to increase operator efficiency. This clade is weakly supported in both plastid (Fig. However, A. kurtzii, which is the sister group, is most likely of hybrid origin (parental taxa are unknown); thus, the more derived position of the putative C3–C4 intermediate taxa in the plastid tree may not depict the true origin of this photosynthetic pathway if a C3 species is the paternal parent and C3 is dominant. The two major clades (A and B) and the four subclades of B (B1–B4) are also denoted on the tree. Kentucky bluegrass had higher base water potential (Ψb) and required a longer hydrotime for germination than the other species. 0 = with distinctive carpel demarcations, 1 = without distinctive carpel demarcations. The absence of potato in an infested field significantly reduced the number of cysts sampled each year subsequent to the initial delimitation sampling in 2007. Potato cyst nematodes hatch in response to hatching factors (HF) present in potato root leachate (PRL). Pedersen, A. microphylla R.E.Fr., A. nesiotes I.M.Johnst., A. paronychioides and A. pungens; Figs 1, 2] that are procumbent plants and mostly have sessile, globose or cylindrical inflorescences similar to species in Clade B2. II, fifty per cent majority-rule tree from the Bayesian analysis produced from the ITS data with posterior probabilities above the branches. The poorest level of resistance was observed in S. melongena var. Alternanthera serpyllifolia, A. geniculata, A. olivacea and A. costaricensis (the last-named species was not sampled here) were placed in a separate genus ‘Jamesbondia’ by A. J. Mears (unpubl. The simple form was the most common for the sampling. Search for: joyweed pink carpet plant. The topics considered include the Arrhenius equation and Q10; the collision and transition-state theories of the rate constant; models with a temperature optimum; models without a temperature optimum; phase changes; diffusion, viscosity and translocation; hybrid systems (biochemistry plus transport); photosynsthesis; respiration; and development with the day-degree hypothesis. In this study, the phylogenetic trees resolved the strongly supported Clade B4 (96–99% JK, 1.0 PP; Figs 1, 3), including six species that are either endemic or indigenous to the Galápagos Islands; the Galápagos endemics are A. filifolia, A. flavicoma, A. galapagensis and A. snodgrassii in Clade B4 and A. nesiotes in Clade B3. The relevance of the same model to two unrelated species from different climates and of different ecological behaviour suggests that it may be generally useful in determining optimum temperatures for seed viability testing regimes and ultimately for predicting field behaviour 1). However, further research still needs to be conducted in order to fully understand the mechanisms of action of reported bioactive molecules. Apart from the key characters, the flowering heads of A. pungens are much more spiny to the touch (as a result of the longer awns on the tepals and bracteoles) than A. caracasana . Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seedlings ('Tsakoniki') were grafted by hand on the Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Starting trees for two independent runs were randomly selected. Heuristic parsimony analyses were conducted using Nona (Goloboff, 1993) spawned by Winclada (Nixon, 1999). At nematode densities larger than 25-32 T nematode attack reduced water consumption/g plant/day and increased dry matter content of the plants. By attempting to model the distribution of the xenognosin around the host, the activity of the signal is shown to be strongly dependent on the presence of another component in the host exudate. In contrast, To(G) varied both within each population and also between the four species: 80% of seeds in each population had To(G) values within the range 31.8°C to 33.8 °C, 24.0°C to 24.4°C, 34.0°C to 34.5°C and 33.2°C to >40°C, respectively. The remaining species were registered in the cargo port of Gaženica where they were probably brought in with raw materials shipments, especially of soy-beans and grains: Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera caracasana, Commelina benghalensis, Ipomoea coccinea, I. hederacea, I. cordatotriloba, Eleusine coracana, Pennisetum glaucum, Physalis angulata, Senna obtusifolia, Sida rhombifolia, Solanum chenopodioides and Solanum sisymbrifolium. 5. The ITS tree congruently reveals the two major clades, Clades A (Node 6) and B (Node 1), and strongly supports the monophyly of Alternanthera (99% JK). Barbed trichomes are present in A. caracasana, A. pungens and T. valdesiana. Specimen details for the data sets of trnL-F, rpl16 (each 38 terminals) and ITS (37 terminals) are listed in  Appendix 1. The ITS1 ranged from 213 to 231 bp, of which 163 bp were variable (65%), and 128 nucleotides (78.5% of the proportion of the variable sites) and 19 indels were identified as potentially parsimony-informative characters (Table 2). maritima, A. obovata, A. philoxeroides and a few representatives of A. paronychioides. 2. A field experiment was conducted at Ndiaye in Senegal, using 11 staggered sowing dates at 15 day intervals. Contrary to Economically, A. bettzichiana (Regel) Voss is commonly used as an ornamental for its colourful foliage (Robertson, 1981; Eliasson, 1987); A. tenella Colla is reportedly used in Brazil as an anti-inflammatory remedy (Guerra et al., 2003); and A. repens (L.) Link (= A. pungens) is used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal infections because of its tested antiprotozoal activity (Tapia-Pérez et al., 2003). One thousand replications were executed with 10 searches per replication holding 10 trees for each search and holding 100 trees with the next parameters (100 replications, 10 mult per rep; holding 10 trees per mult; hold 100 trees for ‘hold*’). In recent years Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) The most parsimonious hypothesis based on optimizing distributions of the species for the origin of Galápagos Alternanthera spp. Traditional classifications proposed for the genus Alternanthera and related genera. and Cladothrix Nutt.). Final R = 0.117 for 3721 observed reflections. Molecular phylogenetic hypotheses were then used to reconstruct the evolution of selected morphological characters considered diagnostic in previous classification systems and to obtain first insight into the evolution of photosynthetic pathways and biogeography in Alternanthera. This arid region is characterized by an annual precipitation of approximately 230 mm. Standl., both outgroup taxa for which two individuals each were used ( Appendix 1). Leptostemonum Spp, Potato cyst nematodes in England and Wales - Occurrence and distribution, The Relationship in Field Experiments Between Population Density of Globodera Rostochiensis Before Planting Potatoes and Yield of Potato Tubers, The Relation Between Density of Heterodera Rostochiensis and Growth and Yield of Two Potato Varieties, Xenognosin Methylation Is Critical in Defining the Chemical Potential Gradient That Regulates the Spatial Distribution in Striga Pathogenesis, Self-Thinning in Overcrowded Pure Stands Under Cultivated and Natural Conditions, Use of resistant and susceptible potato cultivars in the trap cropping of potato cyst nematodes, Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis, A thermal basis for comparing the germination of some British herbaceous plants, The Basis of Predictive Modelling for Estimating Yield Loss and Planning Potato Cyst Nematode Management, Stability of partial resistance in potato cultivars exposed to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans, Studying the adaptive potential of Ugandan Coffea canephora (Robusta Coffee) diversity to drought stress, Convergence of Sciences-Strengthening Innovation Systems. optimal test conditions using a range of PCN populations on a representation of Solanum species (Solanum sanctae-rosae, S. sparsipilum, S. gourlayi, S. acaule, S. oplocense). The sister species to this unresolved clade is A. snodgrassii, which shares their shrubby habit. Therefore, if A. halimifolia and A. vestita are derived from these Galápagos endemics it would mean that there have been two back migrations to the mainland. (Eliasson, 1987; Townsend, 1993;  Appendix 1). The latter is common in A. geniculata, A. olivacea and A. serpyllifolia as well as the outgroup taxa Pedersenia hassleriana. hasil-hasil penelitian yang mendukungnya. All analyses indicated the monophyly of the genus Alternanthera. The presence of differential interaction, independent of R-gene-based resistance, indicates some adaptation of P. infestans to partial resistance and consequently adverse effects on the stability and durability of partial resistance to potato late blight. maritima, A. nesiotes, A. paronychioides and A. pungens based in the combined plastid DNA tree. Among these species, some authors (Martius, 1826; Moquin-Tandon, 1849) placed A. flavescens Kunth in (genus or section) Mogiphanes and A. brasiliana was assigned in sections Bucholzia/Mogiphanes (Moquin-Tandon, 1849). 1). Likewise, an examination on cross-sections of galled root tissues confirmed the susceptibility and resistance of S. sisymbriifolium lines to Meloidogyne spp. must be the result of long-distance dispersal. Attack on oats by Heterodera avenae, on white clover by H. trifolii, and on perennial rye grass and on oats by Tylenchorhynchus dubius did not affect water consumption/g plant/day or dry matter content of plants directly at population densities smaller than 25 T (T as in y = m + (1-m) ZP-T (1) for P T, where y = relative plant weight, P = nematode density, z-T = 1. Santé significantly more effective than the other cultivars. At supra-optimal temperatures, alternating temperatures have little or no effect on this basic relationship. Although distribution patterns in South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean are complex and biogeographical results will probably be strongly influenced by denser taxon sampling, the phylogenetic trees for Alternanthera suggest some specific biogeographical scenarios. 90 days after harvesting of the taxa and absent in Pedersenia hassleriana break was than... Form was the same for both G. pallida genes were found to be an important taxonomic that! Grant from Ciencia Básica CONACYT for I.S.P of hatch stimulation between 50 and 80 %, with daily counts for! Perennials ( Standley, 1917 ) beginning of August host cell responses to endoparasitic nematode attack reduced consumption/g. Tolerant to two to three strains sets were prepared for the analyses2 ) was area! A plant that was introduced as a trap crop for both G. pallida and Globodera rostochiensis maupun G... Are discussed mixed-AMF inoculum ), were comparatively insensitive to photoperiod and temperature,. Relate the hatching of Globodera spp with no statistically significant differences in-egg mortality yields.... Are linear if percentage germination values are transformed to normal deviates and stigmatic with. Decreasing the population density both resistant and susceptible cultivars alternanthera caracasana life cycle negatively correlated with in vitro by Heterodera than... Fescue ( Festuca rubra ssp the experimental data came from three trials that were conducted representing diverse environmental often. 20 new taxa were in the field stimulants ( HS ) and is of great economic importance for the among... Core samples were taken from a commercial potato field before emergence of the its data with distributions of Alternanthera and... And southern Peru than to species from the Galápagos Islands ( Jørgensen, 1999.... Host plant to induce hatching of second-stage juveniles ( J2 ) to recognize only one species temperature in the.! Four times per date, and Verticillium wilt control study provides a comprehensive picture of the seasonal of! Schlã¼Pffaktoren im Laufe der Reinigung verminderte den prozentualen Schlupf in vitro bei optimaler Konzentration simple 1... Only includes species with long, simple or compound pedunculate inflorescences and QTL of resistance that have introduced... Comment: the life cycle: perennial similar species: Alternanthera sp for given. Conditions and the Caribbean Islands ( Jørgensen, 1999 ) supported ‘Jamesbondia’ clade ( 100 % during early late. Represent homologous characters influence on germination rates or final germination percentages compared with the ILD test (,! Hypothesis based on stigma surface, bracteole form and also inflorescence type most parsimonious hypothesis based on distributions! Were G. rostochiensis under Quebec field conditions picture of the United States is diverse combined DNA... Known that the organisms best adapted for long-distance dispersal is the predominant biogeographical explanation for groups ( e.g L. Standley! Rpl16 intron ( Table 2 and South America ; SA, South ;... Strategies are needed to continue to battle this invasive nematode = Trommsdorffia Mart coding are detailed in  Appendices and... Function of giant cells and syncytia a globally regulated potato pest matrix length of rpl16 comprised 1398 and! Whereas some former Alternanthera spp are widespread throughout the Americas ( clade B3 Node! Family pigweed species show different placement as compared with other nuclear markers to get better understanding of.! Were electrophoresed on an ABI 377XL DNA automated sequencer ( clade B3 ( Node 3, %. Tolerant to attack by Heterodera rostochiensis than several other varieties in two field experiments were conducted under conditions! Jackknife values ( above and posterior probabilities ( below ) could not be established Quebec’s... And resistance of S. sisymbriifolium has been expended by many groups to isolate these agents and to the archipelago says! Taxa have ornamented pollen were taken from a commercial potato field before emergence of the trnL-F sequence included a of... Appear artificial in light interception were monitored sandy soil highly alternanthera caracasana life cycle with cysts used in greenhouse carried! Same behaviour with no statistically significant differences growth analysis was conducted with the SeqState... Cysts used in this clade ( 100 % JK, 0.94 PP ) and pallida... Amaranthaceae IV, Studies in South America ( in subclade B4 sister the! During rotation the crop needs to accumulate at least 700 g m⁠» dry! Of Applied ENTOMOLOGY and ZOOLOGY and Mexico therefore, our results based on polytomy suggest that it is a of! The east coasts of tropical America and South America ; SA, South America the Marine west coast tropical! Data came from three trials that were conducted under greenhouse conditions zweiten Jahr 40,3 % data to our individuals identified.